MONGOL WEAPONS

Warrior armor. Most Mongol warriors fought as light horsemen, wearing leather body armor and, if possible, a silk undershirt—allegedly offering protection against an arrow shot. Their minority of heavy cavalry, however, were sometimes equipped with Chinese-style metal armor. Made of overlapping plates, usually sown onto a backing garment, this is a replica of a Mongol […]

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MONGOL RULE IN AFGHANISTAN: 1219–1332

Khwarezmid Empire (1190–1220), on the eve of the Mongol conquests After overcoming some difficulties at first, Genghis Khan mercilessly defeated and conquered the well-protected cities of neighboring empires. By 1209, the dreaded Genghis Khan was acknowledged by the Tangut emperor as the reigning lord of this region. Genghis Khan continued to annihilate the various dynasties […]

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Qipchaqs (Kypchaks, Comans, Polovtsi)

Qipchaq cavalry and infantry A sprawling, disunited tribal confederacy, the Qipchaqs formed the base population of the Mongol GOLDEN HORDE. The Qipchaqs first appeared around 750 as a Turkic tribe occupying the ALTAI RANGE. Later they moved west and joined the Kimek confederacy in western Siberia. Beginning around 1017 tribes fleeing the growing Kitan Empire […]

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The End of Mongol Rule in China

The basic dilemma of Mongol rule in China—the Mongols’ inability to achieve a durable identification with Chinese civilian institutions and to modify the military and colonialist character of their rule—became more apparent under Kublai’s successors and reached a maximum under Togon-temür, the last Yuan ruler. Togon-temür was not unfriendly toward Chinese civilization, but this could […]

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The First Mongol Attacks on the Latin West

  Battle of Mohi The Mongols menaced Latin Christendom on two fronts: in Eastern Europe and in Outremer. The first reports of the attack on the Khwārazmian Empire, reaching Egypt in 1221, prompted the commanders of the Fifth Crusade (1217– 1221) to identify the newcomers with the long-awaited forces of the great Eastern king Prester […]

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The Mongol Turned Back?

The Mongol devastation of Hungary alerted western Europe to what might be in store for it: but suddenly Batu and his hordes were gone, the danger was over and Europe could breathe again. From that day to this the question of why they turned back has exercised historians. The most commonly accepted ‘explanation’ is that […]

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THE SONG AND THE MONGOLS

This is a Song/Yuan dynasty merchant/warship. Very typical of Chinese merchant ships in the Middle Ages. In 1211, when Genghis Khan invaded North China, the Song was exhausted from a humiliating defeat in the Kaixi War (1205–08) it had deliberately provoked against the Jin. In 1217 the Jin court, having taken refuge south of the […]

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The Era of Inter-Mongol Warfare I

The Toluid Civil War was a war of succession fought between Kublai Khan and his younger brother, Ariq Böke, from 1260 to 1264. Möngke Khan died in 1259 with no declared successor, precipitating infighting between members of the Tolui family line for the title of Great Khan that escalated to a civil war. The Toluid […]

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The Era of Inter-Mongol Warfare III

The Toluid Civil War was a war of succession fought between Kublai Khan and his younger brother, Ariq Böke, from 1260 to 1264. Möngke Khan died in 1259 with no declared successor, precipitating infighting between members of the Tolui family line for the title of Great Khan that escalated to a civil war. The Toluid […]

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The Era of Inter-Mongol Warfare II

The Toluid Civil War was a war of succession fought between Kublai Khan and his younger brother, Ariq Böke, from 1260 to 1264. Möngke Khan died in 1259 with no declared successor, precipitating infighting between members of the Tolui family line for the title of Great Khan that escalated to a civil war. The Toluid […]

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