English Armies 1000-1650

Saxon Huscarl Anglo-Saxon England relied on the fryd to raise men for armies and navies alike. The Normans replaced this system with enfeoffed feudal military obligations, although the idea of fryd-style “national” service and collective obligation survived beneath the Norman surface to influence later attitudes and ease the transition to pay-for-service and large infantry formations. […]

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James Butler (1610-88), the Earl of Ormonde

James Butler (1610-88), the Earl of Ormonde, was among the most prominent royalist leaders who survived to enjoy the Restoration of the Stuarts to the throne. An Anglo-Irish nobleman of Catholic ancestry but Protestant persuasion, he had joined the hard-fisted administration of the Duke of Strafford in 1633, and was deeply involved in the confiscation […]

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