Panama Canal Zone Defences II

14-inch railroad gun which could move from coast to coast if needed. There were emplacements for these 14-inch railroad guns at : Fort Randolph (2 each), Fort Amador (then Fort Grant) on Culebra Island. This picture looks like it was taken on Culebra Island.

31st Pursuit Squadron P-40 at La Joya Field.

Early Aviation in Panama

Following the Armistice of November 1917, additional aviation units were assigned to Panama to support the peace-time security efforts of the other service branches. These units joined the 7th Aero Squadron at France Field to form the 6th Composite Group, composed of one observation, one pursuit, and one bombardment squadron and various supporting elements such as air intelligence, photography, and services. By 1924, the Army’s air strength in the Canal Zone stood at 57 officers and 623 enlisted men operating 38 aircraft. Despite constant requests for more airpower and a new airfield for Canal defense, little congressional funding support was forthcoming. By 1929, the authorized air complement remained at only 666 men. These men stayed extremely busy, nevertheless, conducting a wide range of missions, not all of which were directly related to their military responsibilities. For example, in the spring of 1923, heavy flooding isolated parts of Costa Rica from the outside world, cutting roads, railroads, and telegraph lines. Until service could be restored, the Army Air Service provided airmail service into San Jose and Port Limon. Air Service flyers also provided emergency transportation in response to a number of medical crises in remote areas of Panama, both for American citizens and Panamanian nationals. This kind of public service activity served to improve relations between the U.S. and its Central American neighbors. In an effort to foster regular commercial aviation service to and from the Canal Zone, a new position was created in 1929 for an advisor to the Governor of The Panama Canal. Air Corps Lieutenant R. T. Zane was the first to hold the position. Pan American Airways, Inc., commenced regular air mail service to and from the Canal Zone in February 1929. The next year, Pan Am began to provide passenger service between Panama, the U.S., and various points in Mexico, Central America, and the east coast of South America. Pan America-Grace Airways, Inc., also began service to a number of cities along South America’s west coast. At this time, all commercial air mail, passenger, and cargo services into the Canal Zone employed Army airfields and Panama Canal Department harbors. France Field served as Pan Am’s primary flying field until 1936, when commercial service moved to the recently opened Albrook Field, where a more serviceable runway was available.58

Albrook Field

The need for an airfield on the Pacific side of the Panama Canal had become apparent to Army Air Service and Canal Department officials early in the 1920s. By that time, it had been accepted by U.S. military planners that the original threat assessment for Canal defense was obsolete. No longer were naval bombardment and sabotage the only significant threats to the Canal. Rapid developments in naval aviation — particularly the aircraft carrier and more advanced and efficient carrier aircraft — made direct air attack on the Canal more feasible. As a result, the air defenses of the Canal Zone had to be upgraded to meet this new aerial threat. France Field was already proving to be too small to accommodate even the slowly growing Air Service presence in the Canal Zone during the 1920s. Its location offered no possibility for meaningful expansion, and its landing surface was already of questionable utility for the larger aircraft in use even at that time, not to mention the new bombers that the Air Service planned to field in the near future. Moreover, because it was situated on the Atlantic side of the Isthmus, Air Service leaders felt that it offered only imperfect defense against air attack from the Pacific side. It was determined, therefore, that a substantial new flying field must be established on the Pacific side in order to provide adequate defense against the growing threat of air attack.59

Requests for needed expansion fell on deaf ears until the passage of the Air Corps Act of 1926. This act temporarily settled the long-running debate in military circles regarding the establishment of an independent Air Force. It stopped short of this reform, but did authorize the formation of the Army Air Corps, and advocated significant expansion for the Army’s air arm. The most significant practical impact of the Air Corps Act was the approval of the Five-Year Plan for Army Aviation. This plan called for a doubling of the strength of the Air Corps over a 5-year period, and a corresponding expansion of the Air Corps’ ground facilities. Two new installations were authorized in the plan. One was a new primary training field to be located in San Antonio, TX. The other was a new operational flying field on the Pacific side of the Canal Zone. The primary justification for the establishment of this new field was the Air Corps’ plan to deploy a new bombardment group to Panama, and France Field’s inability to accommodate it. The location chosen for the new field was the old Balboa Fill Landing Field, a rough auxiliary landing field that was then being utilized during the dry season.60

The site of this field had once been a swampy tidal basin, but had been raised over the proceeding ten years by pumping in material from the Canal mixed with water (hydraulic fill), and layering dry material on top. By 1922, a temporary hangar was erected in the middle of the sod field in order to support emergency landing operations. A detachment of pilots from the 7th Aero Squadron, under the command of Lt. Frank. P. Albrook, became the active personnel for this new field, known as the 8th Air Park. In November 1924, it was redesignated as Albrook Field, in honor of the late Lt. Albrook, who had just died following a crash at Chanute Field, IL. When Albrook Field was selected for expansion under the Five-Year Plan, much filling and surfacing work remained before any real construction activities could even begin. The first appropriations for Albrook Field came in FY28, but covered only housing facilities, providing no funding for technical construction. Follow-on appropriations in FY29 addressed this lack, but significant delays in construction resulted from a series of disputes during the planning stage regarding the placement of the flight line. Actual construction on the field did not begin until 1930, and was not completed until 1932 — five years after initial approval of the project.61

Major E. A. Lohman arrived at the expanded field in 1931 with a detachment of the 44th Observation Squadron from France Field, composed of eight officer pilots flying three old O-19 observation aircraft. Their practical duties were mostly limited to towing gunnery targets for the Coastal Artillery. Construction was still under way at this point, and even the official boundaries of the reservation were not finalized until 1932. Since no concrete runways had been provided in the original construction, these men were forced to operate off of the warm-up apron in front of the three original hangars, which were still completing construction when they arrived. With the arrival of the rainy season in 1932, regular flying operations were forbidden due to the extremely poor quality of the landing field, which became a muddy lake during heavy rains. In emergencies, the light O-l9s could use the paved warm-up ramp, but this was not employed for day-to-day flying. On 15 October 1932, following improvements to the drainage system on the field, the 78th Pursuit squadron deployed to Albrook from France Field with their P-12 biplanes. At this point, flying operations picked up, and tactical exercises took over from the aerial target duties that had dominated previously. Subsequently, the 78th was split into two squadrons, the 74th and 78th Pursuit Squadrons, which were augmented by the 44th Observation Squadron. These three squadrons at Albrook joined others at France Field to form the 19th Composite Wing, which comprised the entire Army Air Corps contingent in Panama. The total personnel strength at Albrook in 1934 amounted to 46 officers and 662 enlisted men, and increased only slowly until the build-up prior to World War II, although the planned squadron of B-10 heavy bombers did deploy to Albrook in the form of the 74th Attack Squadron in 1936. Throughout the period, Albrook Field and the 19th Composite Wing were plagued by insufficient manpower and funding support, and almost no improvements were made to the base itself. The much-needed runway paving project was not even begun until 1937, and was not completed until 1939. Nevertheless, Air Corps personnel succeeded in conducting regular tactical training operations. Perhaps the most important of these training activities were the annual Joint Landing Maneuvers conducted by Army and Navy forces, which served to enhance the readiness of the Canal’s defenders, and to illuminate areas in which current defense dispositions were lacking.62

Expansion for World War II

It gradually become apparent to Air Corps leaders, through lessons learned during these Joint Landing Exercises, that the air defense of the Canal Zone was growing increasingly inadequate with each passing year. As early as 1934, the Air Corps requested significant expansion of its strength in Panama in order to enable it to defeat possible air attacks. As in the 1920s, rapid improvements in naval aviation made the threat of attack by aircraft carriers more and more potent. In addition, as the long-range heavy bombers of the day became increasingly efficient, the threat of attack by land-based aircraft increased. Moreover, with the expansion of commercial aviation in Central and South America, the airfields from which such an attack might be mounted had become far more numerous. Under the command of Brigadier General Herbert A. Dargue, who assumed command of the 19th Composite Wing in October 1938, important advances were recommended and accomplished in preparing the air defenses of the Panama Canal for war. Dargue examined the preliminary studies on the subject made by students of the Air Corps Tactical School in 1934, and concluded that more attention had to be given to stopping enemy air attack before it ever reached the Canal Zone. Engaging the enemy over the canal would be entirely too late to prevent damage or destruction of this vital strategic asset. Instead, Dargue advocated the establishment of a network of outlying bases from which to detect and intercept incoming air attacks. Modern pursuit aircraft were necessary for such an interception mission, and more bombers were needed to destroy enemy air bases and aircraft carriers before they could launch attacks. Little, however, was done to improve the situation until after a brief inspection tour by General H. H. “Hap” Arnold — now Commanding General of the Air Corps — in May 1939. Immediately following Arnold’s departure, plans were approved to substantially expand Air Corps strength in Panama.63

In June 1939, this program of expansion finally received congressional approval and funding support. Referred to anachronistically as the Caribbean Air Command Expansion Program, and the Air Force Augmentation Program, this plan for expansion had actually been advocated by the Air Corps since 1935. In that year, the Drum Board, a special committee of the Army General Council, had concluded that American air power lagged dangerously behind that of other world powers, and called for a significant expansion of its combat strength and basing facilities. Seven geographical areas within the continental U.S. had been identified as critical air defense sectors in which should be established a single major airdrome backed by a system of more primitive dispersal fields. The Drum Board identified the Panama Canal Zone and Hawaii as eighth and ninth critical air defense regions, outside the continental U.S. In 1935, Congress had passed the Wilcox Act, which authorized the necessary expansion of the Air Corps’ airfield network, but funding was only gradually approved to allow for the authorized building programs. Since the expansion program required an immense increase in the manpower at Albrook, much of the new construction was dedicated to barracks quarters. In addition, a small amount of technical construction was also included for the flight line, and some for the establishment of the Panama Air Depot (PAD) on the east side of the Albrook reservation. Landscaping advice and assistance at expansion Army and Navy posts was done by the landscape unit of The Panama Canal.64

As of December 1939, Albrook’s personnel strength stood at 77 officers and 1,721 enlisted men. New troops were scheduled to begin arriving in August 1940 at the rate of 150 men per month. No housing facilities were available at that time, so an emergency appropriation of $400,000 was approved to begin construction of temporary barracks at Panama Canal Department installations to house the expected flow of reinforcements. Plans for the permanent construction quickly passed through the Quartermaster Corps’ Construction Division, but after that delays were immediately encountered. As a result, no construction began at Albrook until July 1940 — a year after the funds had been released, and only a month before the first recruits arrived. While the temporary barracks projects helped somewhat to alleviate the inevitable overcrowding as Albrook’s manpower rapidly expanded, housing remained a real problem at the base until well into the war. Many new arrivals were forced to go without proper quartering, with the majority being housed in one or two of the hangars and in tent camps. It was not until early 1942 that the permanent housing facilities reached completion, and even then some quartering problems remained.65

Howard Field

The increasing limitations of France Field, coupled with larger and heavier airplanes, made the creation of a new airfield a necessity. The justification given for the necessity of a new field had been that the present field was too small for the operation of modem aircraft, the coral surface couldn’t support the new planes, and the coral surface by its constant sinking made maintenance unreasonably expensive.66

As early as 1937, the Fort Kobbe Military Reservation had been selected as the site for the future air base. The $50 million appropriation for upgrading Canal defenses provided the funding to create the new facility, and plans were made definite on 12 July 1939. The Quartermaster General began drawing up specific plans, upon completion of which construction could begin. The development of Howard Field encountered the same contractual delays as other Panama Canal Department projects, and the designs for the hangars were altered, causing a delay of many months.67

Plans for personnel were more advanced, as there was little time to waste. The new air base was needed quickly, as existing plans indicated an increase from the August 1939 level of 63 officers and approximately 1,390 enlisted men to 140 Air Corps officers and 4,000 Air Corps enlisted men (by 225-man monthly increments) by June 1940. A September 1940 estimate included plans for stationing at Howard Field the Headquarters and Headquarters Squadron of the Panama Canal Air Force and the 19th Bombardment Wing, the 6th and 9th Bombardment Groups, the 59th Bombardment Squadron, the 7th and 44th Reconnaissance Squadron, and the l6th Air Base Group. It was estimated that the above units would house 3,198 enlisted men and 413 officers. The new arrivals were quartered in temporary facilities at Rio Hato air field until the housing facilities at Howard were ready to be occupied.68

General Netherwood, Commanding General of the 19th Bombardment Wing, established priorities in March 1941 for the occupation of Howard Field. No troops were to be transferred until the construction of permanent facilities had advanced to the point where continuing construction work would not impede the mission of the base. The Air Base Group, Headquarters Squadron of the 19th Bombardment Wing, and several service detachments were considered first priority. Next would be the 9th Bombardment Group and the 59th Bombardment Squadron, currently at Rio Hato. These would be followed by the 6th Bombardment Group and the 7th and 44th Reconnaissance Squadrons. The 16th Air Base Group arrived from France Field on or about 5 May 1941, and General Netherwood took command of the Howard Field-Fort Kobbe Military Reservation on 15 May 1941.69 On 20 June 1941, the status of Fort Kobbe was changed from being a sub Amador to an independent post containing Howard Field. The Base Commander of Howard Field became Post Commander.70 Shortly thereafter, other troops to be stationed at Howard Field began to arrive:71

#

Four companies of the 550th Airborne Battalion on 1 July; units of the 501st Parachute Battalion on 7 July; the 44th Reconnaissance Squadron (from Albrook) on 8 July; six days later the 74th Bombardment Squadron, also from Albrook; early in August the 46th Signal Platoon, the 325th Signal Company, to be followed sometime later in the month by the 59th Bomb Squadron (L) from Rio Hato; in October the 10th Quartermaster Company, and late in November the 7th Reconnaissance Squadron.

Growing tensions in Europe and the Far East spurred a rapid modernization and expansion of the 19th Composite Wing’s aircraft complement, and contributed to a series of organizational changes in the air defense of the Panama Canal. To shift the defense focus from attacking a hostile force from the few ground installations in the Canal Zone to one of regional defense, it was necessary to radically expand the geographic reach of the air defense. As outlying bases were acquired and developed, the Air Force was repeatedly reorganized to maintain efficiency in the operation of remote installations. This expansion served to fulfill the mission of the Panama Canal Department Air Force, which was to “detect and defeat an enemy force on the outer rim of the defense arc, or if necessary, to destroy enemy planes which had broken through that arc to the inner defenses of the Canal.”72

In early 1939, the 19th Composite Wing operated only 28 medium bombers, 14 light bombers, and 24 pursuit planes, plus a few trainers and utility planes. This meager force was clearly not up to defending the Canal in time of war. As soon as the new runway at Albrook Field was completed in April 1939, the obsolescent B-10s of the Wing were replaced with 30 new B-18 long-range medium bombers. In August of that year, following the German invasion of Poland, 30 new P-36 fighters were also sent to Albrook to provide more modern combat aircraft for the defense of the Canal. November 1940 brought a significant air defense reorganization in response to the alarming German military successes of May and June. With the fall of France and German successes in North Africa, new threats developed to the Panama Canal — and to South America and the Caribbean in general. Direct attack of South America from Dakar appeared to be a real possibility, and Vichy control of French Guiana, Martinique, and Guadaloupe provided even closer bases for the potential enemy. In response, the War Department authorized the formation of the Panama Canal Air Force on 20 November 1940, which took on the task of defending U.S. interests in Panama and in Central and South America. General Frank M. Andrews became its first commanding general. In May 1941, President Roosevelt declared a state of unlimited emergency, and called for accelerated preparations for war. August of that year brought the formation of the Caribbean Air Force — still under General Andrews as Commanding General, Caribbean Defense Command — which assumed unilateral command of all Army Air Force and Navy aviation assets in the Caribbean region in order to provide coordinated air defense for the region. This organization assumed command over a much larger geographic area, and included the many new bases throughout the Caribbean that had been acquired from the British through the Lend-Lease program. In addition, troop strength had increased markedly — as of 11 December 1941, the Caribbean Air Force consisted of and estimated 1,112 officers and 14,974 enlisted men.73

A number of new aircraft arrived during the summer of 1941 to supplement the small and aging complement of aircraft already in place. By late August, the 19th Bombardment Wing had 26 B-18’s, 21 B-18A’s, 9 B-17B’s, 12 A-20A’s, and 3 A-17’s, all destined for Howard Field. The 12th Pursuit Wing at Albrook possessed 64 P-40C’s, 2 P-40B’s, 11 P-26A’s, and 16 P-36A’s. In Late November, all eight B-17’s in the Department were concentrated at Howard Field for more efficient maintenance and operation. The acquisition of these aircraft gave a boost to the Air Force training program, but it continued to be operating at a disadvantage. The rapid escalation of troop numbers meant a high percentage of raw recruits and a serious shortage of experienced officers. The high incidence of station changes interrupted training as logistics had to be restored, and quite often the bases were still under construction, requiring base function work of men who were supposed to be busy with training. Nevertheless, every effort was made to prepare the Air Force for combat situations, and joint exercises were conducted in the autumn of 1941 utilizing the bomber, pursuit, and antiaircraft artillery units for simulated bombing attacks.74

World War II

Immediately after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the War Department instructed its department commanders to put the Rainbow 5 plan into effect. This was the Orange Plan, which identified the Japanese as the primary aggressor, and singled out the Panama Canal as one of the key defense initiatives. General Andrews’ requests for immediate reinforcements therefore met with a positive reaction from the War Department, and a number of new units were deployed to Panama as a result. Overall manpower within the Department expanded from about 28,000 men at the close of 1940, to about 31,000 by December 1941, and to a peak of over 66,000 by early 1943.75 During the last week in December 1941 the Air Task Force was organized, with oversight of all Army and Navy air assets in Panama and the Caribbean and Pacific naval frontiers. Its mission was to locate, track, and attack any enemy force encountered in these areas. Command was given to the Commanding General of the 6th Bomber Command of the recently formed 6th Air Force. In effect, Atlantic security was left to Navy elements, who concentrated on the German submarine threat, while Army aircraft concentrated around the Pacific approaches to the Canal area. By August, it appeared to military intelligence authorities as though the submarine threat was receding, as the Germans withdrew from the Caribbean to safer hunting grounds in the Atlantic. The reduction of this threat left Atlantic units available for increased patrols in the Pacific sector.

Serving as a bomber and fighter base, Howard Air Base was assigned P-38’s, P-39’s, and P-40 fighters along with B-17’s, B-18’s, B-24’s, B-25’s, B-26’s, and A-20 bombers. In order to explore the effects of their tactical abilities, a simulated bombing run on the Howard Air Base runway was conducted in 1942. Explosive charges under one end of the runway were ignited without warning, to see the damage produced and to test the repair crews. The 23-ft diameter crater was filled and other damage repaired within six hours, when the runway re-opened for business.76

As the threat of attack was beginning to recede, Albrook Air Base began a training mission that continued until 1989. The Air Force School of the Military Training Center of the Panama Canal Department, located at the PAD, opened in 1943 to train Latin American Air Forces. The first class consisted of one officer and ten enlisted men from Peru who signed up for three months of apprentice training.77

In April 1943, the Canal Defense Category was downgraded from “D” to “B” status, with a corresponding reduction in the number of patrol tracks expected to be flown each day. With this development, the Navy split its patrol assets between the Caribbean and Pacific sectors, leaving Army assets free to act as a strike force in time of need. No sooner had this new patrol system come into effect than the Germans began to renew their submarine efforts in the Caribbean and Army assets had to be released to supplement Naval patrols in that area. From November 1943 to April 1944, Army aircraft conducted patrols in support of the Navy, but no combat engagements occurred. Throughout the entire course of the war, in fact, the 6th Air Force engaged in only two combat engagements against German U-boats in the Caribbean, damaging one on 6 July 1942 and sinking another on 22 August 1942. The bulk of its patrol operations were conducted without major contact with the enemy, and the war passed relatively quietly in and around Panama.78

20 The Panama Canal, Annual Report of the Governor of The Panama Canal for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30.1917,

(Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1917),75.

21 Board of Officers to Brigadier General A. Cronkhite, U.S.A., August 28, 1917, File 13-U-2/25, Part 2, January 1, 1916-April 30, 1934, General Records 1914-34, Records of The Panama Canal, 1914-1950, Record Group 185, National Archives, Washington, DC.

22 “The Army and Navy: The military and naval activities on the Canal Zone are important elements of the Canal enterprise,” in Panama Canal & Twenty-Fifth Anniversary. 1914-1939, (Mount Hope, Canal Zone: The Panama Canal Press, 1939), 93-94.

23 Dolores De Mena, “History of the United States Army in the Panama Canal Area,” Unpublished manuscript, USARSO History Office, Ft. Clayton, Panama, 1994, 4.

24 Canal Record, (Canal Zone), 13 June 1917, 515.

25 “The Army and Navy,” 94; John R. Baldwin, “History of the Panama Canal Department,” Infantry Journal 26 (April 1925): 367-368; De Mena, “History of the United States Army in the Panama Canal Area,” 4.

26 T. S. Voss, “The Army Air Service,” Infantry Journal 26, (April 1925): 417.

27 Baldwin, “History of the Panama Canal Department,” 369; De Mena, “History of the United States Army in the Panama Canal Area,” 4-6.

28 Panama Canal Department Historical Section, History of the Panama Canal Department, Vol. 1, Introduction and Historical Background 1903-1939 (n.p., 1949), 48; “The Army and Navy,” 94.

29 Panama Canal Department Historical Section, History of the Panama Canal Department, Vol. 1, Introduction and Historical Background 1903-1939, 49-50.

30 U.S. Senate, Background Documents Relating to the Panama Canal, Committee on Foreign Relations, (Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1977), 972-975; U.S. Senate, Chronology, 4-5.

31 The Panama Canal, The Third Locks Project, (Canal Zone, Panama: The Panama Canal, 1941), 1-4; John Hannaman, interview by Susan Enscore, 8 February 1994, Directorate of Engineering and Housing Office, Corozal, Panama.

32 Stetson Conn, Rose C. Engelman, and Byron Fairchild, The Western Hemisphere: Guarding the United States and Its Outposts, Vol. 12 of United States Army in World War II, ed. Stetson Conn (Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1964), 319-32 1.

33 Panama Canal Department Historical Section, History of the Panama Canal Department, Vol. 4, The Reconversion Period 1945-1947, (n.p.: Panama Canal Department, 1949), 85.

34 Panama Canal Department Historical Section, History of the Panama Canal Department, Vol. 2, Preparation for War 1939-1941 (n.p., Panama Canal Department, 1949), 50-51.35 Susan Harp, “Panama Canal Defense Vital During Second World War,” Panama Canal Spillway, 2 July 1993; Conn, Engelman, and Fairchild, Guarding the United States and Its Outposts, 309; Panama Canal Department Historical Section, of the Panama Canal Department, Vol. 2, Preparation for War 1939-1941, 53, 67.

36 Conn, Engelman, and Fairchild, Guarding the United States and Its Outposts, 302.

37 Ibid., 302-3

38 Harp, “Panama Canal Defense Vital During Second World War,” 2 July 1993.

39 Harp, “Panama Canal Defense Vital During Second World War,” 2 July 1993 and 5 November 1993; Conn, Engelman, and Fairchild, Guarding, the United States and Its Outposts, 304, 310-316.

40 Conn, Engelman, and Fairchild, Guarding the United States and Its Outposts, 306-309, 344-348.

41 Panama Canal Department Historical Section, History of the Panama Canal Department, Vol. 3, The War Period 1941 – 1945, (n.p., Panama Canal Department, 1949),192.

42 Ibid., Vol. 4, The Reconversion Period 1045-1947, 50, 86.

43 Ibid., 327-335.

44 Conn, Engelman, and Fairchild, Guarding the United States and Its Outposts, 409-412; Panama Canal Department, History of the Panama Canal Department, Vol. 3, The War Period 1941-1945, 1-3.

45 Conn, Engelman, and Fairchild, Guarding the United States and Its Outposts, 412.

46 Harp, “Panama Canal Defense Vital During Second World War,” 2 July 1993.

47 Conn, Engelman, and Fairchild, Guarding the United States and Its Outposts, 424.

48 Ibid., 414.

49 Ibid., 437.

50 Ibid., 441.

51 De Mena, “History of the United States Army in the Panama Canal Area,” 9.

52 Ibid., 11, 14

53 U.S. Senate, Background Documents, 921-923, 975-979; U.S. Senate, Chronology, 6; Almon R. Wright, “Defense Sites Negotiations between the United States and Panama, 1936-1948,” Department of State Bulletin, Vol. 27, 11 August 1952, 212-217; Paul Ryan, The Panama Controversy: U.S. Diplomacy and Defense Interests, (Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, 1977), 28-31; Paolo E. Coletta, ed., United States Navy and Marine Corps Bases Overseas, (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1985), 259; U.S. Department of the Navy, Naval Historical Center, Washington, DC, Operational Archives.

54 U.S. Senate, Chronology, 7-9; U.S. House, Panama Canal- 1971: Hearings before the Subcommittee on Inter-American Affairs of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, (Washington, DC: GPO, 1971), 18, 30-31, 35-37, 114; Knapp and Knapp, Red, White-and Blue Paradise, 54-59; William Jorden, Panama Odyssey, (Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1984), 38-49; Coletta, Navy and Marine Corps Bases Overseas, 259-260.

55 U.S. Senate, Chronology 9-36; U.S. Senate, “Defense, Maintenance and Operation of the Panama Canal, Including Administration and Government of the Canal Zone — Hearings before the Committee on Armed Services,” (Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1978), 62-63, 83-84, 139, 164-165, 258-259; Coletta, Navy and Marine , 260-26 1; Knapp and Knapp, Red, White, and Blue Paradise, 47; Robert A. Pastor, “The Carter Administration and Latin America: A Test of Principle,” Occasional Paper Series, Volume II, Number 3, (Atlanta: The Carter Center of Emory University, 1992), 11-13.

56 De Mena, “History of the United States Army in the Panama Canal Area,” 13

57 Murray, Panama Chronology: U.S. Air Corps & U.S. Air Force, (n.p.: U.S. Air Force South, n.d.), 4-6; Panama Canal Department Historical Section., History of the Panama Canal Department, Vol. 1, Introduction and Historical Background 1903-1939, 14-15; Historical Section, Sixth Air Force, History of the 6th Air Force, 1939, 5; “Land Holdings of the Armed Forces in the Canal Zone, 1956, ” (Quarry Heights, Canal Zone: Panama Area Joint Committee, Headquarters Caribbean Command, 1956), 3-4, 9; “Land Holdings of the Armed Forces and the Federal Aviation Agency in the Canal Zone, (Quarry Heights, Canal Zone: HQ USARSO, HQ USAFSO, and HQ USNAVSO, 1970),2; Robert C. Sullivan, 24th Wing Historian, Howard Air Force Base, written comments, 7 November 1996, 1.

58 Voss, “The Army Air Service,” 417-420; Panama Canal Department Historical Section, History of the Panama Canal Department. Vol. 1, Introduction and Historical Background 1903-1939, 93-94; The Panama Canal, Annual & Report of the Governor of the Panama Canal for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1929, (Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1929), 59-61, 77; The Panama Canal, Annual Report of the Governor of the Panama Canal for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1930, (Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1930), 103; Canal Record (1929), 384; Historical Section, Sixth Air Force, History of Albrook Field: Introduction, 1931-1938, (Canal Zone, Panama: Sixth Air Force, n.d.), Enclosure #45.

59 Conn, Engelman, and Fairchild, Guarding the United States and Its Outposts, 301-302.

60 Robert Frank Futrell, Ideas, Concept. Doctrine: Basic Thinking in the United States Air Force, 1907-1960, Vol. I, (Maxwell AFB, AL: Air University Press, 1989), 31-39, 51-53; Maurer Maurer, Aviation in the U.S. Army. 1919-1939, (Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History, USAF, 1987), 191-221; Wesley Frank Craven and James Lea Cate, The Air Forces in World War II Vol. 1. Plans and Early Operations January 1939 to August 1942 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1948), 29.

61 Jerold E. Brown, Where Eagles Land: Planning and Development of U.S. Army Airfields, 1910-1941, (New York: Greenwood Press, 1990), 74, 80, 165; “Hearings, War Department Appropriation Bill, 1929, Part I, “before the Subcommittee of the House Committee on Appropriations, 70th Congress, 1st Session, (Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1928), 325, 459; “Hearings, War Department Appropriation Bill, 1930, Part I, before the Subcommittee of the House Committee on Appropriations, 70th Congress, 2nd Session, (Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1928), 327-328; “Hearings, Army Construction, ” before Subcommittee No. 2 of the House Committee on Appropriations, 70th Congress, 2nd Session, (Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1929), 4; “Hearings, Construction at Army Air Corps Posts, ” before Subcommittee No. 2 of the House Committee on Appropriations, 70th Congress, 2nd Session, (Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1929), 4, 27-28; Albert A. Mittag, “Albrook Flying Field in the Canal Zone,” Civil Engineering, Vol. 4, no. 7, July 1934:340-344; Murray, Panama Chronology pp. 7-8; Historical Section, Sixth Air Force, History of Albrook Field: Introduction, 1931-1938, Enclosures #4, #19.

62 Panama Canal Department Historical Section, History of the Panama Canal Department. Vol. 1, Introduction and Historical Background 1903-1939, 75-77, 95-96, Historical Section, Sixth Air Force, History of Albrook Field: Introduction, 1931-1938. Enclosure #8; Conn, Engelman, and Fairchild, Guarding the United States and Its Outposts, 303; Sullivan, written continents, 1.

63 Conn, Engelman, and Fairchild, Guarding the United States and Its Outposts, 301-303; Panama Canal Department Historical Section, History of the Panama Canal Department, Vol. 1, Introduction and Historical Background 1903-1939, 78-86 and Vol. 2, Preparations for War: 1939-1941, 150; Historical Section, Sixth Air Force, History of the Sixth Air Force, 1939, 11-15.

64 Brown, Where Eagles Land, 95-98; Futrell, Ideas, Concepts. Doctrine, 67-68; Panama Canal Department Historical Section, History of the Panama Canal Department, Vol. 1, Introduction and Historical Background 1903-1939, 17; Historical Section, Sixth Air Force, History of the Sixth Air Force, 1939, 19-21; Conn, Engelman, and Fairchild, Guarding the United States and Its Outposts, 309; The Panama Canal, Annual report of the Governor of the Panama Canal for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1940, (Washington, D.C.: GPO, 1940), 69.

65 Panama Canal Department Historical Section, History of the Panama Canal Department, Vol. 2, Preparations for War: 1939-1941, 34, 46, 50; Historical Section, Sixth Air Force, History of the Sixth Air Force, 1939, 19-21; Conn, Engelman, and Fairchild, Guarding the United States and Its Outposts, 312-313, 316.

66 Historical Section, Sixth Air Force, History of the 19th Wing, A.C., 1 January 1940 – 20 November 1940, (Canal Zone, Panama: Sixth Air Force), 35.

67 “Hearings Before the Subcommittee of the Committee on Appropriations, House of Representatives, Seventy-Fifth Congress on the Military Establishment Appropriation Bill for 1939,” (Washington: D.C.: GPO, 1938), 476. Historical Section, Sixth Air Force, History of the Sixth Air Force, 1939, 19-20.

68 Historical Section, Sixth Air Force, History of the Sixth Air Force, 1939, 1, 3, 23; Historical Section, Sixth Air Force, History of the Panama canal Department Air Force- 20 November 1940 – 8 May 1941, (Canal Zone, Panama: Sixth Air Force, 1944), Enclosures #56, #57.

69 Historical Section, Sixth Air Force, History of the Panama Canal Department Air Force, 20 November 1940 – 8 May 1941, 45, 47.

70 Johnson, American Legacy in Panama, 42; Dolores De Mena, The Era of U.S. Army Panama, (Fort Clayton, Panama: History Office, Headquarters, U.S. Army South, 1996), 181.

71 Historical Section, Sixth Air Force, History of the Panama canal Department Air Force- 20 November 1940- 8 May 1941, 117-118.

72 Panama Canal Department Historical Section, History of the Panama Canal Department, Vol. 4, The Reconversion Period 1045-1947, 88.

73 Conn, Engelman, and Fairchild, Guarding the United States and Its Outposts, 303-304, 312, 334, 349; Historical Section, Sixth Air Force, History of the Caribbean Air Force, 8 May 1941 – 6 March 1942, Vol. 1, (Canal Zone, Panama: Sixth Air Force, 1945), 1, 261; Murray, Panama Chronology, 14-15.

74 Historical Section, Sixth Air Force, History of the Caribbean Air Force- 8 May 1941 – 6 March 1942, Vol. 1, 282-286, 321, 332.

75 Panama Canal Department Historical Section, History of the Panama Canal Department. Vol. 2, Preparations for War: 1939-1941, 46, 50; Conn, Engelman, and Fairchild, Guarding the United States and Its Outposts, 412.

76 De Mena, Era of U.S. Army Installations, 181.

77 A. Glenn Morton, “The Inter-American Air Forces Academy,” Air University Review, n.d., 16.

78 Charles Morris, Security and Defense of Panama Canal. 1903-2000 (Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama: Panama Canal Commission Printing Office, 1995), 90-96; Conn, Engelman, and Fairchild, Guarding the United States and Its Outposts, 436.

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