The term Russian revolution is used to refer to a series of revolutions which were initiated in Russia against the Tsarist autocracy in 1917. The historical significance of the Russian revolution of 1917 was that it paved the way for the creation of a separate nation of the Soviet Union. Though we refer to the revolutions in 1917 as the Russian revolution, in broad sense, the term is also used to refer to the revolution of 1905 and the third Russian revolution in 1918. The Russian revolution of 1905 was against Nicholas II, while the third Russian revolution was against the Bolsheviks. The information given below will predominantly stress on 1917 Russian revolution facts, with a passing reference to other revolutions witnessed by this nation.
Russian Revolution Causes
When we talk about Russian revolution facts, we can’t ignore the various causes of the Russian revolution. These causes can be broadly categorized into economic causes, social causes and political causes. World War I had left Russia in dire state as several individuals joined the army, thus leaving the other sectors with insufficient number of workers. Working in rather miserable conditions, workers working in industries put forth some demands through their union. However, the Tsar was in no mood to pay heed to them, and the workers were left with no option but to go on a strike. Social oppression was at its peak during the beginning of the 20th century, and participation in the World War just made the things worse. Several peasants moved to the industrial areas as these industries were looking to fill manpower they lost heavily during the war. Tsar Nicholas II and his autocratic rule became quite infamous as time elapsed. Things worsened further when Nicholas II decided to bring army under his direct control. At this point of time the State Duma came into the picture, and issued a warning to the Tsar. It was this inept handling on the situation by Nicholas II that brought Russia to the verge of an uprising.
Russian Revolution Timeline
Given below is the timeline of the events that took place in Russia during the revolution. These events highlight several Russian revolution facts, which marked the history of this nation.
22nd February: The beginning of the February revolution marked by the strike of the workers at the Putilov Plant in Petrograd.
23rd February: Series of demonstrations demanding an end to autocracy in Russia and withdrawal from the World War I.
25th – 27th February: An army battalion was sent to Petrograd to end the rebellion, however, the disgruntled army personnel themselves joined the rebellion.
27th February: Petrograd Soviet is formed as Menshevik leaders are released from the Peter and Paul Fortress, in St. Petersburg.
2nd March: Nicholas II gives up the throne.
15th March: Provisional Government takes the reins of the nation in its own hands.
3rd July: An unplanned pro-soviet demonstration takes place in Petrograd.
6th July: The rebellion is crushed and several Bolshevik leaders are arrested.
27th August: The Provisional Government prepares for the attack after General Lavr Kornilov orders the army crops to take on Petrograd.
31st August: General Lavr Kornilov is arrested by the orders of Provisional Government.
4th September: Under tremendous public pressure, the Provisional Government is forced to release the Bolshevik leaders.
25th October: The rule of the Russian Provisional Government comes to an end as the Military Revolutionary Committee troops capture the Winter palace. This date which marked the end of October revolution, also marked the proclamation of Soviet Russia.
26th October: The Decree on Peace issued by the Second All-Russian Congress of Soviets brings an end to Russian participation in the war.
Russian Revolution Summary
The 1905 Russian revolution was a mass unrest in several parts of the Russian Empire, which was, though not entirely, directed at the then government. It resulted in constitutional monarchy and multi-party system in Russia. Almost a decade later, the Russian revolution of 1917 created a similar picture of social unrest in the nation. Two of the most prominent incidents of Russian revolution of 1917 came in March and October respectively. In March 1917, the Russian Provisional Government took the reins in its own hand after the Tsar was deposed. In October the same year, the Provisional government was replaced by the Bolsheviks. What we refer to as the third Russian revolution was in fact a failed attempt to overthrow the Bolsheviks in 1918.